中考辅导

中考介词专项复习

 (一) 知识概要
介词在英语中用法很活,也无一定规律可循。在初中范围内还应学一个记住一个,特别是那些和动词的特殊搭配。这样长期下去不断学习自然会总结出一套自己的规律来。下面是一般的规律,可帮助学习时参考,千万不要作为定律去背诵,照搬。
介词 表示时间 表示地点方位 表示原因方式 其 他
about 大约在……时间about five o'clock 在周围,大约多远about five kilometres   关于、涉及talk about you
 above   高出某一平面 above sea level
 across   横过 walk across the street对面 across the street    
after 在……之后after supper 跟……后面one after another   追赶run after you
against   背靠逆风against the wall, against the wind   反对be against you
among   三者以上的中间among the trees     
at 在某时刻at ten 在小地点at the school gate 表示速度at high speed 向着,对着at me
]before 在……之前before lunch 位于……之前sit before me
behind   位于……之后behind the tree   below   低于……水平below zero
by 到……时刻,在……时刻之前by five o'clock 紧挨着site by site 乘坐交通工具by air, by bick 被由was made by us
during 在……期间during the holidays
for 延续多长时间for five years 向……去leave for Shanghai 为了,对于be good for you
from 从某时到……某时from morning till night 来自何方from New York 由某原料制成be made from 来自何处where are you from
in 在年、月、周较长时间内in a week 在里面in the room 用某种语言in English 穿着
in red
into   进入……里面walk into 除分divide into 变动turn into water
near 接近某时near five years 在……附近near the park    
of     用某种原料制成be made of 属于……性质a map of U. S .A
on 某日、某日的上下午on Sunday afternoon 在……上面on the desk 靠吃……为生live on rice 关于a boo k on Physics
over 渡过一整段时间work over night 在上方over the desk 超过, 高于over five pairs  
past 超过某一时刻ten past five 经过某地walk past the park
since 从某时以来since 1980     原因Since you were ill
through 经过某一时期through his life 通过、穿过某地through the forest    
tilluntil 直到某时为止till five o'clock    to 差多少时间five to ten 问,到,去往to Shanghai 面对面face to face 给予give a book to me
under    在……下面under the desk 少于under ten 在……管制之 下 under the rule
with     用某种工具with a pen 带着,具有[with me
without    没有without air
(二) 正误辨析
1[误] We got to the top of the mountain in daybreak.
2.[误] We visited the old man in Sunday afternoon.
3.[误] He became a writter at his twenties
4.[误] He went to New York to find a job in sixteen years old.
5.[误] We went to swim in the river in a very hot day.
6.[误] I'm looking forward to seeing you on Christmas.
7.[误] I haven't see you during the summer holidays.
8.[误] In the beginning of the book, there are some interesting stories.
9.[误] I can help you repair this bike. You will get it after two hours.
10.[误] Three days after he died.
11.[误] She hid herself after the tree.
12.[误] There is a beautiful bird on the tree.
13.[误] Shanghai is on the east of China.
14.[误] I arrived at New York on July 2nd.
15.[误] He lived in No. 3 Beijing Road.
16.[误] There is a colour TV set at the corner of the hall.[来源:Z|xx|k.Com]
17.[误] This weekend I'll stay in Uncle Wang's.
18.[误] Do you know there is some good news on today's news paper?
19.[误] I'll leave Beijing to Shanghai tomorrow.
20.[误] I'm sorry. I have to get out the bus at next stop.
21.[误] Be careful The temperature of the water is ninety degrees over zero.
22.[误] There is an old stone bridge above the river.
23.[误] There is a big tree in the front of the house.
24.[误] It took them tw o days to walk across the forest.
25.[误] The sun sets toward the west.
26.[误] Can I write the exam paper with ink?
27.[误] I'm earlier today. I came here by his car.
28.[误] A lot of French wines are made of grape.
29.[误] This is a good dictionary in English grammar.
30.[误] Do you have the key of the door. 
(三) 例题解析
1 - Thank you ___ the beautiful flowers!- Not at all.A in B on C at D for 
2 Can you answer this question ___ English?A by B in C with D from
3 Look ___ the map ___ China ___ the wall, please.
A after, of, in B at, of, in   C after, in, on D at, of, on 
4 - When did Mr Green arrive in London?
- He arrived there ___ the evening of December 6th.A at B in C on    D to
5 We won the relay race. And there was a big smile ___ our teacher's face.
A off    B near C on D between
6 The twins got on well___ their classmates.A to B in C with D about
7. Let's hurry, or we'll be late ___ schoolA to B at C with D for
8. They will have a maths test ___ two daysA for B at C in D after
9. My brother joined the army ___
A 1989, March   B in March, 1989   C March, 1989  D 1989, in March 10. He couldn't work out the maths problem ___ your help
A without B under C for D with
11. Granny took one look at us ___ her glassesA.by   B.through   C.on   D.in
12. We had our break fast ___ a quarter ___ seven
A /, to B in, to C at, to D on, to
13. I learn French ___ the radio every dayA on B in C from D at
14. It's good manners to wait ___ lineA in B on C at D with
15. How many English words had you learnt ___ last term?
A by the end of   B at the end of  C to the end of D till the end of 
16. The manager was very satisfied __ his workA in B on C about D with
17. I was born ___ the night ___ September 15, 1978
A in, on B at, on C at, in D on, of 
18. It's a bad manner t o laugh ___ people when they are ___ trouble
A over, in B at, in C in, at D at, for
19.Don't shout ___ the old woman。 You should be more polite ___ her
A to, at B at, to C in, for D from, for
20. We must be strict ___ our selves ___ everything
A with, in B in, with C with, to D to, of
21. Mr Black got to Hangzhou ___ a few daysA in B after C on D at
22. - Has the teacher given you any advice ___ your English study?- Yes, he has
A from B with C on D in
23. You may depend ___ him He is ___ honest man
A on, a B in, an C on, an D at, the
24. ___ my joy, I can answer this questionA With B To C By D For
25. The teacher asked the students to look ___ the word in the dictionary
A for B at C up D after
26. A little monkey is playing ___ a tree and there are a lot of bananas ___ it
A on, on B in, on C on, in D in, in
27. No one likes a person ___ bad manners.A. without B. on C. out of D. with
答案:
  
1[正] We got to the top of the mountain at day break.
[析] at用于具体时刻之前,如:sunrise, midday, noon, sunset, midnight, night。
2.[正] We visited the old man on Sunday a fternoon.
[析] in the morning, in the afternoon 如果在这两个短语中加入任何修饰词其前面的介词都要改为on, 如:on a cold morning, on the morning of July 14th
3.[正] He became a writter in his twenties
[析] 这句话应译为:他在20多岁时就成了作家。在某人的一段生活时间段中要用介词in来表示,而在具体岁数时用at来表示。
4.[正] He went to New York to find a job at sixteen.
[析] 在具体年岁前用at, 如:at the age of 12, at your age, 等等。5.[正] We went to swim in the river on a very hot day.
[析] 具体某一天要用介词on, 又如:on New Year's Day
6.[正] I'm looking for ward to seeing you at Christmas.
[析] 在节日的当天用on,而全部节日期间用at,Christmas是圣诞节期间,一般要有两周或更长的时间。
7.[正] I haven't seen you since the beginning of the summer holidays.
[析] during表示在某一段时间之内,所以一般不与完成时搭配,如:I visited a lot of museums during the holiday. 而for表示一段时间,可以用于完成时,如:I haven't see you for a long time. 而through 用来表示时间时则为"整整,全部的时间"。如:It rained through the night.而since则是表达主句动作的起始时间,一般要与完成时连用。
8.[正] At the beginning of the book, there are some interesting stories.
[析] at the begining与at the end都是指某事物的开始与结束部分,均不指时间范围,而in the beginning 则是指开始一段时间。in the end=at last是指"最终,终于"之意。
9.[正] I can help you repair this bike. You will get it in two hours.
[析] 中文经常讲两小时之后来取,两天内会修好,而这个介词在英文中要用in而不要用after。其原因有二,①after 多用于过去时,如:I arrived in New York. After three days, I found a job in the bank. ② after 加时间是表达一个不确定的时间范围,如:after three days, 即三天之后的哪一天都可以。所以在许诺若干时间内会完成某事时,一定要用介词in。
10.[ 正] After three days he died.
[正] Three days later he died.
[析] after 与 later都可以用来表达一段时间之后,但它们所处的位置不同,after 在时间词前,而later在时间词后。
11.[正] She hid herself behind the tree.
[析] after多用来表达某动作之后,所以有的语法书中称它为动态介词,如:I run after him. After finishing my homework, I went to see a film. 而behind则多用于静态事物之后。
12.[正] There is a beautiful bird in the tree.
[析] 树上长出的果实,树叶要用on, 而其他外来的人、物体均要用in the tree.
13.[正] Shanghai is in the east of China.
[析] 在表达地理位置时有3个介词:in, on, to。 in表示在某范围之内; on表示与某地区接壤;to则表示不相接。如:Japan is to the east of China. 
14.[正] I arrived in New York on July 2nd.
[析] at用来表达较小的地方,而in用来表达较大的地方。at常用于at the school gate, at home, at a bus stop, at the station, at the cinema, at a small village。
15.[正] He lived at No. 3 Beijing Road.
[析] 在门牌号码前要用at, 并要注意它的惯用法:at the end of the street, at the foot of the mountain, at the top of the page。
16.[正] There is a colour TV set in the corner of the hall.
[析] 在屋内的角落应用in,而墙的外角用at,如:There is a tree at the corner of the street.
17.[正] This weekend I'll stay at Uncle Wang's.
[析] 要注意英文的特殊表达法,如:at a tailor's shop (裁缝店)=at a tailor's, at the doctor's (去看病) at the bookseller's (在书店) at uncle Wang's (在王叔叔家)
18.[正] Do you know there is some good news in today's newspaper?
[析] 在报纸上的新闻要用in, 而在具体某一版上,或某一页上则要用on。
19.[正] I'll leave Beijing for Shanghai.
[正] I'll leave for Shanghai.
[析] leave for 是离开某地去某处的固定搭配,不可将for改为别的介词。这样的搭配还有:start for 动身前往某处,set out for, sail for。
20.[正] I'm sorry. I have to get out of the bus at next stop.
[析] get in, 与 get out是两个相反的词组。get in 为上车,而get out为下车,但语法家认为这里的in与out为副词,所以其后不能接名词,我们可以讲We'd better get in. 或We'd better get out. 还有一组词组有关上下车:get on/off(a train, a ship, a struck) get into /out of (a car, taxi…)
21.[正] Be careful. The temperature of the water is ninety degrees above zero.
[析] over 与 above 在作为比某物高的意思时有时可以互换。但在垂直方向上的高矮时,即正上方时则要用above.而泛指上方时用over.
22.[正] There is an old stone bridge over the river.
[析] over还有一意为"跨越,横跨"。
23.[正] There is a big tree in front of the house. 
[析] in front of 是在物体外部的前面,而in the front of 是在物体内部的前面,如:The driver sits in the front of the bus.
24.[正] It took them two days to walk through the forest.
[析] across 作为介词有两个主要意思:① 横过,如:I want to walk across the street.② 对面,如:There is a post office across the street,而through 多用于三维空间中的穿越。across则多用于平面上的横过。如:The little girl ran across the room to meet her mother.
25.[正] The sun sets in the west.
[析] towards也可用作toward,它主要表达朝向某方向运动,但不一定到达,如:He ran toward(s) the mountain.而在表示方位east, west, north, south 时,其前面要用in。要注意的是这4个词可以用作副词,如:I w ent south. 也可用作名词,如:I went to the south.也可用作形容词,如:I went to the south part of China.
26.[正] Can I write the exam paper with a pen?
[正] Can I write the exam paper in ink?
[析] with后要加拿得起来放得下的工具,而墨水、颜料等原料则要用in。
27.[正] I'm earlier today. I came here in his car.
[析] 在交通工具前加介词by,但不能再有任何指示代词或冠词,否则要改换相应的介词。by taxi=in a taxi by train=in a train by bicycle=on a bicycleby ship=on a ship by boat=in a boat by bus=on a busby plane=on a plane by air 空运 by land 陆运by sea 海运 on foot on horsebackby phone by letter by radioby air mail by hand
28.[正] A lot of French wines are made from grape.
[析] made of 是指由原材料到成品过程中原材料未发生质地的变化,而发生了某种变化则要用from,如:The desk was made of hard wood.
29.[正] This is a good dictionary on English grammar.
[析] 关于某方面的书籍、报告等有两个介词,其中on表示某专业用书,about则为某方面的普通读物,如:This is a book about physics.即物理科普知识。
30.[正] Do you have the key to the door.
[析] key to the door门的钥匙。相同用法还有answer to the question, entrance to the highway, danger to health.千万不要用of。
选择题:
1[答案] D. 
[析] 由于某事向某人道谢应用for。
2[答案] B. 
[析] in 表示用语言、声音、或材料,如:He answered the question in a low voice.
3[答案] D. 
[析] look at 为"看",而on the wall为"在墙表面挂着",而in the wall 则是"在墙内",如:There is hole in the wall.墙上有个洞。
4[答案] C. 
[析] in the evening / afternoon这两个词组不论是在其前或后加上任何修饰词都应将介词换为on,如:on a cold morning, on a spring morning等。
5[答案] C. 
6[答案] C. 
[析] get on well with与人相处很好。
7[答案] D.
[析] be late for,而 come late to, 如: Don't come late to school
8答案] C.
[析] 三天之内应用in,而不要受中文影响用 after, after three days 是个不定的时间范围,即没有一个准确的时间。5天、6天、10天全是after three days。
9[答案] B.
[析] 在月份、年、前用介词in,而日子前用on。[答案] A.
[析] 在某人帮助下应用with,如:With the help of the teacher I passed the exam easily 而要是没有你的帮助则用 without your help
10[答案] B.
[析] through 为穿过……。
11[答案] C.
[析] 具体时间点前用at,而差几分几点用to,这里应译为:我在差一刻七点吃的早饭。
12[答案] A.
[析] 从收音机中听到某事应用词组 on the radio。
13[答案] A.
[析] in line 为排队。
14[答案] A.
[析] by the end of 为动作的截止时间,与完成时态相配合
15[答案] D.
[析] be satisfied with 为固定搭配。
16[答案] D.
[析] 在时间前加介词时应以最小的时间单位为准。
17[答案] B.
[析] laugh at 嘲笑某人, laugh over 笑着谈论某人或某事, in trouble 陷入困境。
18[答案] B.
[析] shout at 为"冲某人喊叫",而 be polite to somebody 为"对某人和气。"
19[答案] A.
[析] be strict with 对某人严格要求。
20[答案] B.
[析] 这句话应译为:几天之后 Mr Black 到达了杭州。而不是在几天之内一定要做完某事,所以选B。
21[答案] C.
[析] 给予某一方面问题的忠告其介词用on。
22[答案] C.
[析] depend on 为"依靠某人或某事",而 honest 的首字母 h 不发音。
23[答案] B.
[析] To one's joy 意为"使我高兴的是。"
24[答案] C.
[析] look for 寻找, look at 看, look after 照顾, look up 查字典。
25[答案] B.
[析] 树上长出的果实为 on the tree 而其他外来之物要用 in the tree, 表达在树上。 2627[答案] D.
[析] with bad manners 有不良习惯的人。

分享到:

 
中考政策
    友情链接