中考辅导

中考英语语法复习------主谓一致

概念︰主谓一致是指谓语动词与主语在人称和数上保持一致。
                 1.语法或形式一致原则
遵循三个原则     2.意义一致原则
                 3.就近一致原则
主谓一致是初、高中阶段的重要语法项目之一,从近年中考的试题来看,中考对于主谓一致的考题主要考知识的记忆情况。
    考 查主谓一致的常见题型有单项选择、完形填空、翻译句子、同义句转换、时态填空、单句改错、短文改错等等,尤其要注意书面表达,因为汉语中没有相应的这种谓 语动词的变化,所以英语的主谓一致也是困扰广大中国学生的一大心病,很多学生在挥毫泼墨之时,此类错误比比皆是,严重影响文章的水平,考试中必将拉低得分 的档次。因此,掌握好主谓一致对于提高英语水平和取得理想成绩都至关重要, 找出句子的真正主语是关键。同时,必须遵循三个原则,下面,我们就来看一下具体情况:
1. 语法或形式一致原则
 (1) 单数名词(代词)、不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数;复数名词(代词)作主语时,谓语动词用复数。
    如:He         a tall man. (be)
        Some bread         on the table. (be)
        The boys          playing football. (be)
(2) 当and或both...and...连接两个或三个名词(代词)作主语时,谓语动词用复数。
如:( Both ) Lucy and Lily         good students. (be)
﹡注︰在意义上指同一人、同一事物或同一概念,谓语动词用单数,这时and后面的名词无冠词。
如:The singer and dancer           talking with his students over there. (be)
          The singer and the dancer           talking happily. (be)
﹡注︰and 连接的成对名词习惯上被看成是一个整体,当bread and butter(黄油抹面包), knife and fork(刀叉)等作主语时,谓语动词用单数。
如:Fish and chips         always his favorite food. (be)
(3) 单数主语后面即使带有由with, together with, like, but, except, besides, as well as等构成的介词短语时,谓语动词仍用单数。介词短语一般不作主语。
 如:She as well as the other students          learned how to type. (have)
         Mr Green with his children            watching TV now. (be)
         Everyone except Li Lei           here when the meeting began. (be)
(4) 不定代词each, another, the other, either, neither 和由some, any, no, every+one或thing构成复合不定代词作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。
 如:Everything         ready. (be)
﹡(5) every..., every...and every..., each..., each...and each..., no… and no…作主语时,谓语动词用单数。
如:Each boy and (each) girl           an apple in their hands. (have)
No man and no woman ______(like) these shoes.
(6) one, every one, each, each one, any one, neither, either+of+复数名词作主语,谓语动词用单数。如: Each of us          a bike. (have)
            Every one of the students           listening to the teacher carefully. (be)
注︰each作同位语时,谓语动词与主语保持一致。
    如︰We each         a pen friend. = We         a pen friend each. (have)
(7) none作主语,指人或可数的物,表示数目, 谓语单数复数都可以。如果指不可数名词,表示量,谓语动词用单数。
如: None of them             the right size. (be) 
        Jim has used up all the money. None          left. (be)
(8) 只有复数形式的名词(clothes, pants, shoes, shorts, gloves, trousers, glasses, scissors )作主语时,谓语动词用复数。
    如:My trousers           new. (be)
(9) “数量词+单位词+of+不可数名词或可数名词复数”结构作主语,谓语动词与单位词一致。
e.g. This pair of trousers           too short for me. (be)
       Two cups of tea            on the table. (be)
﹡(10) more than one +单数名词,“不止一个”,意义复数,谓语动词用单数。
many a +单数名词,“许多”,意义复数,谓语动词用单数。
one and a half + 复数可数名词作主语,谓语动词一般用单数。
e.g. More than one person           hurt in the accident. (be)
          Many a student            playing games on the playground. (be)
          One and a half apples           left on the table. (be)
 (11) 不定式、动名词或从句作主语,谓语动词一般用单数。
e.g. To study hard          our job. (be)
        Swimming           good for our health. (be)
﹡在 “主系表” 结构中,如果以what从句作主语,表语又是单数,主句的谓语动词一般用单数;如果表语是复数,主句的谓语动词一般用复数。
        What he said          true. (be)
What his father left him         a few English books. (be)
﹡注:如果主语是两个(或两个以上的)名词性从句,谓语动词常用复数。
e.g. What he said and what he did           always different last night . (be)
(12) a lot of(lots of, plenty of, most of)+名词作主语时,谓语动词的单复数取决于名词。
    如:There         plenty of rain in this area every year. (be)
        A lot of people          swimming in the river at the moment. (be)
(13) 百分数(或分数)+of+名词作主语时,谓语动词的单复数取决于名词。
    如:Over 70 percent of the earth          covered with water. (be)
        One third of the workers in the factory           women. (be)
注:population 作为整体,谓语动词为单数;主语指“人口中的一部分”时,其谓语动词为复数。
如︰ The population of China          larger than that of India. (be)
     80 percent of the population of China           farmers. (be)
⒁ a number / group of +cn(pl)“许多…”谓语动词用复数,
   the number of +cn(pl)“…的数目”,谓语动用单数。
e.g. A number of books          missing from the library. (be)
      The number of workers in this factory          growing. (be)
Look! There          a group of people over there. What is happening? (be)
⒂ 在定语从句中,关系代词在从句中作主语时,从句中谓语动词与先行词保持一致。
one of +n.(pl.)为先行词,从句谓语动词用复数;
the only/very/right one of +n.(pl.)为先行词,从句谓语动词用单数。
e.g. Jim is one of the students who          praised. (be)
     Jim is the only one of the students who          praised. (be)
﹡⒃ 在强调句中,连接代词又在句中作主语,这时它应与被强调的主语保持一致。
  e.g. It is Mary’s brother who         hurt in the car accident yesterday.(be)
2. 意义一致原则
(1) 集体名词(family, group, crowd, class,team,government)作主语时,谓语动词要根据主语的意思来决定。如表示整体概念,谓语动词用单数;如表示集体中的成员,谓语动词用复数。
如:Our class          very big. (be)
Our class          talking about the film. (be)
(2) 有生命的people,police,cattle(家畜),youth等集合名词作主语时,谓语动词一律用复数;但traffic等无生命的集体名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数。
如:How many people          there in your family? (be)
The traffic          very heavy in the morning. (be)
﹡注︰people当“民族”讲时,有单复数的变化,谓语动词由它的形式决定。
如: The Chinese people           a great people. (be)   There            56 peoples in China. (be)                
(3) 表示时间、金钱、距离、度量、数学运算等的词或短语作主语,尽管是复数形式,通常被看作一个整体,谓语动词用单数形式。
   如:Ten years         passed since Mr Green came to China. (have)      Ten dollars         enough. (be)       What         one and two? It         three. (be)
(4) 以 -s 结尾,而意义为单数的名词或不可数名词(如news,physics, maths,politics等), 或专有名词(如the United States, the New Times, the United Nations 等)作主语时,谓语动词用单数。
如:It        exciting news.(be)
﹡注︰表示群岛、山脉、瀑布、奥运会等专有名词被看做复数,谓语也用复数形式 ,
e.g. The Olympic Games           held every four years. (be)
(5) Chinese, French, English, Japanese等作主语,表示语言,谓语用单数;与the连用,表示人,谓语用复数。   e.g. English        spoken in many countries. (be) 
      The Chinese        very friendly. (be)
⑹ “ the+形容词(或分词)” 表示一类人,如:the rich(富人),the living(活着的人)作主语时,谓语动词用复数;表示抽象事物,谓语动词用单数。
e.g. The rich        better life than the poor. (have)
       The new        always taking the place of the old. (be)
⑺ the+姓氏复数(=the+姓+family)表示一家人或夫妇二人,作主语,谓语动词用复数
e.g. The Green family(= The Greens)         getting ready to go out. (be)
⑻ 疑问词作主语,谓语动词通常用单数。(以who, why, how, whether或that引导的从句作主语时,谓语动词通常用单数形式。如:Why she did this is not known.) 
e.g. Who         going to speak at the meeting? (be)       What          on the desk? (be)
Look! There are a group of people over there. What        happening? (be)
注:由how and why, when and where引导的从句作主语时,谓语动词仍用单数形式。
How and why he had come to Princeton New Jersey is a story of struggle, success and sadness.
⑼ 名词性物主代词后的动词单复数,取决于它所代替的是单数还是复数。
        如:Ours (=Our Party)          a great party. (be)  
        Your shoes are black, mine (=my shoes)           brown. (be)
⑽ 由“a kind of,this kind of,many kinds of”以及由与kind意思相似的 type,sort等构成的短语作主语时,谓语动词与of前的名词保持一致。
   如:A kind of birds        (have) been discovered by them.
       A new type of machines          on show now. (be)
   Many kinds of furniture(家具,不可数)    being transported from Beijing to Tianjin. (be)
⑾ 当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。
The Arabian Nights is an interesting book.
3. 就近原则,即谓语动词的单复数形式取决于离它最近的 名词、代词等词的数。
(1) there, here 引导的句子
  如:There        a book and two pens on the table. (be) There       two pens and a book on the table. (be)
       Here          the bus. (come)
(2) or, either...or..., neither...nor..., not only...but also..., not...but ...连接两个名词或代词作主语时。
    如:Either Lily or Lucy         to the party. (come)
        Not only Jim but also his parents      to live in China. (want)  He or you       taken my pen.(have)
走出主谓一致的三大误区
    “主谓一致”最基本的原则是:单数主语用单数谓语动词;复数主语用复数谓语动词。
句子的核心是谓语动词,谓语动词形式的确定取决于主语。根据句子含义和结构认准主语是掌握主谓一致的必要条件;弄清主谓一致的语言规则和习惯是掌握主谓一致的充分条件,要正确使用主谓一致,两个条件缺一不可,但同学们往往会走入以下三大误区。
误区一 误认主语
1. 倒装句①Between the two buildings are a big tree. (   )②Between the two buildings is a big tree. (   )
2. 主语之后带有介词短语
①The fruit like apples, oranges are good for our health. (   )②The fruit like apples, oranges is good for our health. (   )
3. one of . . . + 名词复数或复数代词
①There are twenty boys in our class. One of the boys are from Canada. (   )
②There are twenty boys in our class. One of the boys is from Canada. (   )
4. 定语从句
①I like the photos which was taken in Beijing. (   )②I like the photos which were taken in Beijing. (   )
5. each作主语的同位语时,谓语动词由主语决定。
① We each has a dictionary. (   )    ② We each have a dictionary. (   )
误区二 被主语的表象迷惑
1. 看似复数却表单数概念①Maths are my favourite subject. (   ) ②Maths is my favourite subject. (   )类似的有:physics,news,politics . . .
2. 看似单数却表复数概念
①The police is searching for the robbers. (   )②The police are searching for the robbers. (   )
3. 名词的单复数同形
 ①There are a little sheep eating grass on the hill. Can you see it?(   )
 ②There is a little sheep eating grass on the hill. Can you see it?(   )
4. 集合名词
①Their family is very happy. Now their family is watching TV. (   )
②Their family is very happy. Now their family are watching TV. (   )
误区三 误用语言规则
1. 表示时间、距离、金钱、重量、数量等名词作主语
①Ten years are quite a long time. (   )②Ten years is quite a long time. (   )
2. 由and连接的并列主语
①The twentieth lesson and last lesson are very easy for students. (   )
②The twentieth lesson and last lesson is very easy for students. (   )
3. 就近原则
①Neither you nor he have been to Beijing. (   )②Neither you nor he has been to Beijing. (   )
4. this kind of,a piece of,this pair of等短语作主语
①This pair of trousers are very new, but Tom’s trousers are very old. (   )
②This pair of trousers is very new, but Tom’s trousers are very old. (   )
感悟中考
【例1】(2011 河北) There ________ lots of people at the restaurant when I got there.
        A. is        B. was   C. are       D. were
【例2】(2011黄岗) -Which would you like, tea or coffee?-Either __ OK, but I prefer coffee ___ milk.
        A. is; with     B. is; to     C. are; with   D. are; to
【例3】(2009天津) Diana, together with her friends, ________ Chinese in China.
        A. study       B. have studied        C. studies      D. are studying
【例4】(2009河南) The zoo keeper is worried because the number of visitors__ smaller and smaller.
        A. become       B. became       C. is becoming    D. have become
【例5】(2010安徽) —How much _____ the pair of shoes? —Twenty dollars ____ enough.
        A. is; is          B. is; are        C. are; is         D. are; are
【例6】(2009宁夏) The woman behind the girls ________ a famous actress.
        A. is        B. are       C. have      D. has
【例7】(2009齐齐哈尔)-Which is more useful, listening or speaking?- I think      of them are useful.         A. none       B. both      C. all
【例8】(2009齐齐哈尔)This is my twin sister, Lucy. Not only she but also I      good at drawing.       
 A. is        B. am       C. are
领悟语法
一、用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空
1. When I got there, they each                          (read) a book.
2. Neither of us              (like) the storybook.
3. Everyone except me               (go) to the cinema tonight.
4. A football team often              (have) eleven players.
5. No one but my parents                  (know) the truth.
6. Jim’s family                 (enjoy) watching TV after supper.
7. What you said                 (be) quite useful to us.
8. Look! The class                      (do) morning exercises on the playground.
9. Twenty years             (have) passed since he left his hometown.
10. Three glasses of milk              (be) enough for us.
11. Either you or he ________(be) a teacher.
12. Not only Li Lei but also Jack ________(enjoy) playing football very much.
13. Both Lucy and Lily _   _ (be) from the USA.
14. Every boy and girl ______(wear) the school uniform today.
15. Jim with his parents often ______(take) a walk in the park after dinner.
16. The number of students in this school ______(be) about 800.
17. Two fifths of the apple _________(eat) up by the mouse already.
18. Ten dollars ________(be) not enough for me to buy a skirt.
19. Mr. Zhang as well as his two sons ________(watch) TV together at this moment.
20. The young ________(play) video games a lot on Sundays.
21. There ________(come) the bus.
22. At the top of the hill _______(stand) an old temple.
23. There _______(be) a boy and three girls in the classroom now.
二. 单项选择
(   )1. There ________more cars now in our country.(2011广西)
      A. have     B. are      C. is       D. has
(   )2. Linda, with her parents, __ the Wolf Hill, and they will be back this afternoon.(2011南通)
      A. has gone to     B. have gone to    C. has been to     D. have been to
(  )3. —How much is the pair of shoes? —Twenty dollars ________ enough.(2011广安)
      A. is         B. are      C. am 
(   )4. —Physics ____ more difficult than Chinese, do you think so?—Yes, I think so.(2011德阳)
       A. is         B. are        C. has
(   )5. __ Lily ___ Lucy is going with you because one of them must stay at home.(2011乌鲁木齐)
       A. Not only;but also     B. Neither; nor      C. Both; and     D. Either; or
(   )6. Each of the girls here ________ to the West Lake twice. (2011四川)
       A. have gone   B. have been    C. has gone    D. has been
(   )7. One of my friends _______moved to America. I miss her so much. (2011衢州)
       A. has     B. have   C. is   D. are
(   )8. The number of books in the bookshop is 10,000 and a number of them ___ about science.
A. is        B. was       C. are      D. were        (2011绵阳)
参考答案:
感悟中考:例1-8  DACCAA
领悟语法:一、 1.were reading 2.likes 3.is going 4.has 5.knows 6.enjoy 7.is 8.are doing 9.has passed 10.are 11.is 12.enjoy 13.are 14.is wearing 15.takes 16.is 17.has been eaten 18.is 19.is watching 20.play 21.comes 22.stands 23.is
二、1-10BAAAD,DAC
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